Fermilab (originally the National Accelerator Laboratory), was commissioned by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, under a bill signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 21, 1967. Fermilab is located west of Chicago, IL on. The main tool in the lab is a proton accelaerator or Tevatron which is the worlds largest acccelerator. You can learn more about Fermilab here.
They also offer some wonderful online resources at the Lederman Science Center there: